Authors: Carlos Giraldo, Latin American Reserve Fund. – email@example.com Iader Giraldo, Latin…
Authors: Camilo Contreras – Senior economist – FLAR. Carlos Giraldo – Chief…
Carlos Giraldo , Iader Giraldo | The unprecedented global health crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic has greatly challenged economies worldwide.
Sovereign risk is a critical element in understanding international capital flows. Investors carefully consider the default risk they face when making short- and long-term investments in a foreign country
Carlos Giraldo , Iader Giraldo , Jose E. Gomez-Gonzalez , Jorge M. Uribe
The world’s economies are currently experiencing heightened levels of uncertainty, with a notable contribution from the United States (US).
Carlos Giraldo, Iader Giraldo and Philip Turner
Oil prices have experienced large fluctuations over the past three years and remain high
María Alejandra Amado – Iader Giraldo
The volatility of international capital flows has increased in recent months due to various circumstances, such as the accelerated withdrawal of monetary stimulus in developed economies, geopolitical conflicts, and slowing demand, among many other factors
Carlos Giraldo – Iader Giraldo – Jose E. Gomez-Gonzalez – Jorge M. Uribe
Several studies have shown that exaggerated and sustained credit growth is one of the main causes of financial crises in both developed (Schularick and Taylor, 2012) and emerging economies (Amador-Torres et al., 2013).
Carlos Giraldo – Iader Giraldo
Central bank digital currencies (CBDCs) have gained prominence in recent years, especially in the wake of the pandemic . However, there is no unique design of a CDBC, with as wide varieties of CDBCs as animal species within the oviparous species.